If the EPA approves new greenhouse-gas emissions caps, the car industry will be powerless to stop California from swiftly enacting even tighter carbon emissions rules, according to the latest ruling handed down by a U.S. District Court judge in Fresno, California.

The decision finds the 45-day window given by the state for compliance with the stricter emissions rules is adequate, and not a reason to delay the law's enactment.

The charge against the short grace period was led by General Motors and two industry advocacy groups. They argued such a short time frame would result in an unfair burden of billions of dollars in costs.

Alternatively, if they fail to comply in time, the carmakers could be banned from selling products in the state until they do conform to the emissions requirements, reports The Detroit News. Either way, the industry finds the new law too harsh with its short time frame.

Judge Anthony Ishii, who issued the ruling, said the choice faced by the car industry is not fundamentally different from those faced in other industries every day. "It is not up to the courts to deflect the burden of such business decisions," he said.