Luxury brands have once again dominated an annual U.S. vehicle quality survey conducted by Californian research company Strategic Vision Inc. However, in a surprise result Hummer came second. The results also showed that overall quality in the industry had actually dropped for the first time in four years.

Volkswagen Group, which includes the likes of Audi and Bentley, topped the results for a corporation with a total quality index score of 892 out of 1,000 possible points. GM finished second as a corporation at 867, followed by Ford and Honda, which tied for third at 862. Toyota finished fifth, at the industry average of 860, which had fallen from 864 points last year.

VW, GM and Ford were the only corporations showing improvement in this year’s survey.

Strategic Vision factored in information collected from 20,655 people in the U.S. who had owned a new vehicle for two to three months, and included characteristics such as reliability, dealership experience, styling, interior and exterior design and their overall perception of initial quality.